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A turn in a Magic game consists of five phases

  1. Beginning phase
  2. Pre-combat main phase
  3. Combat phase
  4. Post-combat main phase
  5. Ending phase

Comprehensive Rules Glossary (April 17, 2020)

Phase
1. A subsection of a turn. See section 5, “Turn Structure.”
2. A permanent “phases in” when its status changes from phased out to phased in. A permanent “phases out” when its status changes from phased in to phased out. See rule 702.25, “Phasing.”

Comprehensive Rules Glossary (April 17, 2020)

Step
A subsection of a phase. See section 5, “Turn Structure.”

Game MechanicsEdit

This section is a stub. Please feel free to contribute and describe the in-game mechanics of a turn.

Comprehensive RulesEdit

Comprehensive Rules (April 17, 2020)

  • 5. Turn Structure
    • 500. General (Turn Structure)
      • 500.1. A turn consists of five phases, in this order: beginning, precombat main, combat, postcombat main, and ending. Each of these phases takes place every turn, even if nothing happens during the phase. The beginning, combat, and ending phases are further broken down into steps, which proceed in order.
      • 500.2. A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. Simply having the stack become empty doesn’t cause such a phase or step to end; all players have to pass in succession with the stack empty. Because of this, each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends.
      • 500.3. A step in which no players receive priority ends when all specified actions that take place during that step are completed. The only such steps are the untap step (see rule 502) and certain cleanup steps (see rule 514).
      • 500.4. When a step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player’s mana pool empties. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 500.5. When a phase or step ends, any effects scheduled to last “until end of” that phase or step expire. When a phase or step begins, any effects scheduled to last “until” that phase or step expire. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire at the end of the combat phase, not at the beginning of the end of combat step. Effects that last “until end of turn” are subject to special rules; see rule 514.2.
      • 500.6. When a phase or step begins, any abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step trigger. They are put on the stack the next time a player would receive priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
      • 500.7. Some effects can give a player extra turns. They do this by adding the turns directly after the specified turn. If a player is given multiple extra turns, the extra turns are added one at a time. If multiple players are given extra turns, the extra turns are added one at a time, in APNAP order (see rule 101.4). The most recently created turn will be taken first.
      • 500.8. Some effects can add phases to a turn. They do this by adding the phases directly after the specified phase. If multiple extra phases are created after the same phase, the most recently created phase will occur first.
      • 500.9. Some effects can add steps to a phase. They do this by adding the steps directly after a specified step or directly before a specified step. If multiple extra steps are created after the same step, the most recently created step will occur first.
      • 500.10. Some effects can cause a step, phase, or turn to be skipped. To skip a step, phase, or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist. See rule 614.10.
      • 500.11. No game events can occur between turns, phases, or steps.
    • 501. Beginning Phase
      • 501.1. The beginning phase consists of three steps, in this order: untap, upkeep, and draw.
    • 502. Untap Step
      • 502.1. First, all phased-in permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out, and all phased-out permanents that the active player controlled when they phased out phase in. This all happens simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. See rule 702.25, “Phasing.”
      • 502.2. Second, the active player determines which permanents they control will untap. Then they untap them all simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. Normally, all of a player’s permanents untap, but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping.
      • 502.3. No player receives priority during the untap step, so no spells can be cast or resolve and no abilities can be activated or resolve. Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority, which is usually during the upkeep step. (See rule 503, “Upkeep Step.”)
    • 503. Upkeep Step
      • 503.1. The upkeep step has no turn-based actions. Once it begins, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 503.1a Any abilities that triggered during the untap step and any abilities that triggered at the beginning of the upkeep are put onto the stack before the active player gets priority; the order in which they triggered doesn’t matter. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)
      • 503.2. If a spell states that it may be cast only “after [a player’s] upkeep step,” and the turn has multiple upkeep steps, that spell may be cast any time after the first upkeep step ends.
    • 504. Draw Step
      • 504.1. First, the active player draws a card. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 504.2. Second, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
    • 505. Main Phase
      • 505.1. There are two main phases in a turn. In each turn, the first main phase (also known as the precombat main phase) and the second main phase (also known as the postcombat main phase) are separated by the combat phase (see rule 506, “Combat Phase”). The precombat and postcombat main phases are individually and collectively known as the main phase.
        • 505.1a Only the first main phase of the turn is a precombat main phase. All other main phases are postcombat main phases. This includes the second main phase of a turn in which the combat phase has been skipped. It is also true of a turn in which an effect has caused an additional combat phase and an additional main phase to be created.
      • 505.2. The main phase has no steps, so a main phase ends when all players pass in succession while the stack is empty. (See rule 500.2.)
      • 505.3. First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it’s the active player’s precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of their scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.24). This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 505.4. Second, if the active player controls one or more Saga enchantments and it’s the active player’s precombat main phase, the active player puts a lore counter on each Saga they control. (See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 505.5. Third, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 505.5a The main phase is the only phase in which a player can normally cast artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker, and sorcery spells. The active player may cast these spells.
        • 505.5b During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from their hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if they haven’t played a land this turn (unless an effect states the player may play additional lands). This action doesn’t use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can’t be countered, and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. (See rule 305, “Lands.”)
    • 506. Combat Phase
      • 506.1. The combat phase has five steps, which proceed in order: beginning of combat, declare attackers, declare blockers, combat damage, and end of combat. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put onto the battlefield attacking (see rule 508.8). There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4).
      • 506.2. During the combat phase, the active player is the attacking player; creatures that player controls may attack. During the combat phase of a two-player game, the nonactive player is the defending player; that player and planeswalkers they control may be attacked.
        • 506.2a During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player’s opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of their opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, “Attack Multiple Players Option,” rule 803, “Attack Left and Attack Right Options,” and rule 809, “Emperor Variant.”
        • 506.2b In multiplayer games using the shared team turns option, the active team is the attacking team and the nonactive team is the defending team. See rule 805, “Shared Team Turns Option.”
      • 506.3. Only a creature can attack or block. Only a player or a planeswalker can be attacked.
        • 506.3a If an effect would put a noncreature permanent onto the battlefield attacking or blocking, the permanent does enter the battlefield but it’s never considered to be an attacking or blocking permanent.
        • 506.3b If an effect would put a creature onto the battlefield attacking under the control of any player except an attacking player, that creature does enter the battlefield, but it’s never considered to be an attacking creature.
        • 506.3c If an effect would put a creature onto the battlefield attacking either a player not in the game or a planeswalker no longer on the battlefield or no longer a planeswalker, that creature does enter the battlefield, but it’s never considered to be an attacking creature.
        • 506.3d If an effect would put a creature onto the battlefield blocking but the creature it would block isn’t attacking either the first creature’s controller or a planeswalker that player controls, that creature does enter the battlefield, but it’s never considered to be a blocking creature.
      • 506.4. A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.14) or stops being a creature. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked.
        • 506.4a Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature, spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don’t remove the creature from combat.
        • 506.4b Tapping or untapping a creature that’s already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn’t remove it from combat and doesn’t prevent its combat damage.
        • 506.4c If a creature is attacking a planeswalker, removing that planeswalker from combat doesn’t remove that creature from combat. It continues to be an attacking creature, although it is attacking neither a player nor a planeswalker. It may be blocked. If it is unblocked, it will deal no combat damage.
        • 506.4d A permanent that’s both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that’s being attacked is removed from combat if it stops being both a creature and a planeswalker. If it stops being one of those card types but continues to be the other, it continues to be either a blocking creature or a planeswalker that’s being attacked, whichever is appropriate.
      • 506.5. A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are. A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are.
      • 506.6. Some spells state that they may be cast “only [before/after] [a particular point in the combat phase],” in which that point may be “attackers are declared,” “blockers are declared,” “the combat damage step,” “the end of combat step,” “the combat phase,” or “combat.”
        • 506.6a A spell that states it may be cast “only before (or after) attackers are declared” is referring to the turn-based action of declaring attackers. It may be cast only before (or after) the declare attackers step begins, regardless of whether any attackers are actually declared. (See rule 508.)
        • 506.6b A spell that states it may be cast “only before (or after) blockers are declared” is referring to the turn-based action of declaring blockers. It may be cast only before (or after) the declare blockers step begins, regardless of whether any blockers are actually declared. (See rule 509.)
        • 506.6c Some spells state that they may be cast only “during combat” or “during a certain player’s combat phase” in addition to the criteria described in rule 506.6. If a turn has multiple combat phases, such spells may be cast at an appropriate time during any of them.
        • 506.6d Some spells state that they may be cast “only before (or after) [a particular point in the combat phase],” but don’t meet the additional criteria described in rule 506.6c. If a turn has multiple combat phases, such spells may be cast that turn only before (or after) the stated point of the first combat phase.
        • 506.6e If a spell states that it may be cast “only before [a particular point in the combat phase],” but the stated point doesn’t exist within the relevant combat phase because the declare blockers step and the combat damage step are skipped (see rule 508.8), then the spell may be cast only before the declare attackers step ends. If the stated point doesn’t exist because the relevant combat phase has been skipped, then the spell may be cast only before the precombat main phase ends.
        • 506.6f If a spell states that it may be cast “only during combat after blockers are declared,” but the declare blockers step is skipped that combat phase (see rule 508.8), then the spell may not be cast during that combat phase.
        • 506.6g Rules 506.6 and 506.6a–f apply to abilities that state that they may be activated only at certain times with respect to combat just as they apply to spells that state that they may be cast only at certain times with respect to combat.
    • 507. Beginning of Combat Step
      • 507.1. First, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of their opponents. That player becomes the defending player. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. (See rule 506.2.)
      • 507.2. Second, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
    • 508. Declare Attackers Step
      • 508.1. First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 723, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
        • 508.1a The active player chooses which creatures that they control, if any, will attack. The chosen creatures must be untapped, and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the turn began.
        • 508.1b If the defending player controls any planeswalkers, or the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players, the active player announces which player or planeswalker each of the chosen creatures is attacking.
        • 508.1c The active player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t attack, or that it can’t attack unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of attackers is illegal.

          Example: A player controls two creatures, each with a restriction that states “[This creature] can’t attack alone.” It’s legal to declare both as attackers.

        • 508.1d The active player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature attacks if able, or that it attacks if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of attackers is illegal. If a creature can’t attack unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if attacking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature attacks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature attacks if able during each declare attackers step in that turn.

          Example: A player controls two creatures: one that “attacks if able” and one with no abilities. An effect states “No more than one creature can attack each turn.” The only legal attack is for just the creature that “attacks if able” to attack. It’s illegal to attack with the other creature, attack with both, or attack with neither.

        • 508.1e If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a “bands with other” ability, the active player announces which creatures, if any, are banded with which. (See rule 702.21, “Banding.”)
        • 508.1f The active player taps the chosen creatures. Tapping a creature when it’s declared as an attacker isn’t a cost; attacking simply causes creatures to become tapped.
        • 508.1g If there are any optional costs to attack with the chosen creatures (expressed as costs a player may pay “as” a creature attacks), the active player chooses which, if any, they will pay.
        • 508.1h If any of the chosen creatures require paying costs to attack, or if any optional costs to attack were chosen, the active player determines the total cost to attack. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes “locked in.” If effects would change the total cost after this time, ignore this change.
        • 508.1i If any of the costs require mana, the active player then has a chance to activate mana abilities (see rule 605, “Mana Abilities”).
        • 508.1j Once the player has enough mana in their mana pool, they pay all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
        • 508.1k Each chosen creature still controlled by the active player becomes an attacking creature. It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.
        • 508.1m Any abilities that trigger on attackers being declared trigger.
      • 508.2. Second, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 508.2a Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition.

          Example: A permanent has the ability “Whenever a green creature attacks, destroy that creature at end of combat.” If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green, the ability will not trigger.

        • 508.2b Any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared or that triggered during the process described in rules 508.1 are put onto the stack before the active player gets priority; the order in which they triggered doesn’t matter. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)
      • 508.3. Triggered abilities that trigger on attackers being declared may have different trigger conditions.
        • 508.3a An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] attacks, . . .” triggers if that creature is declared as an attacker. Similarly, “Whenever [a creature] attacks [a player or planeswalker], . . .” triggers if that creature is declared as an attacker attacking that player or planeswalker. Such abilities won’t trigger if a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking.
        • 508.3b An ability that reads “Whenever [a player or planeswalker] is attacked, . . .” triggers if one or more creatures are declared as attackers attacking that player or planeswalker. It won’t trigger if a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking that player or planeswalker.
        • 508.3c An ability that reads “Whenever [a player] attacks with [a creature], . . .” triggers whenever a creature that player controls is declared as an attacker.
        • 508.3d An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] attacks and isn’t blocked, . . .” triggers during the declare blockers step, not the declare attackers step. See rule 509.5g.
      • 508.4. If a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking, its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it’s attacking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it’s attacking). Similarly, if an effect states that a creature is attacking, its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it’s attacking it becomes attacking (unless the effect has already specified). Such creatures are “attacking” but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, they never “attacked.”
        • 508.4a If the effect that puts a creature onto the battlefield attacking specifies it’s attacking a certain player, and that player is no longer in the game when the effect resolves, the creature is put onto the battlefield but is never considered an attacking creature. The same is true if the effect specifies a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking a planeswalker and that planeswalker is no longer on the battlefield or is no longer a planeswalker when the effect resolves.
        • 508.4b If the effect that states a creature is attacking specifies it’s attacking a certain player, and that player is no longer in the game when the effect resolves, the creature doesn’t become an attacking creature. The same is true if the effect specifies a creature is attacking a planeswalker and that planeswalker is no longer on the battlefield or is no longer a planeswalker when the effect resolves.
        • 508.4c A creature that’s put onto the battlefield attacking or that is stated to be attacking isn’t affected by requirements or restrictions that apply to the declaration of attackers.
      • 508.5. If an ability of an attacking creature refers to a defending player, or a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, then unless otherwise specified, the defending player it’s referring to is the player that creature is attacking, or the controller of the planeswalker that creature is attacking. If that creature is no longer attacking, the defending player it’s referring to is the player that creature was attacking before it was removed from combat or the controller of the planeswalker that creature was attacking before it was removed from combat.
        • 508.5a In a multiplayer game, any rule, object, or effect that refers to a “defending player” refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If a spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.
      • 508.6. A player is “attacking [a player]” if the first player controls a creature that is attacking the second player. A player has “attacked [a player]” if the first player declared one or more creatures as attackers attacking the second player.
      • 508.7. One card (Portal Mage) allows a player to reselect which player or planeswalker a creature is attacking.
        • 508.7a The attacking creature isn’t removed from combat and it isn’t considered to have attacked a second time. That creature is attacking the reselected player or planeswalker, but it’s still considered to have attacked the player or planeswalker chosen as it was declared as an attacker.
        • 508.7b While reselecting which player or planeswalker a creature is attacking, that creature isn’t affected by requirements or restrictions that apply to the declaration of attackers.
        • 508.7c The reselected player or planeswalker must be an opponent of the attacking creature’s controller, or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent of the attacking creature’s controller.
        • 508.7d In a multiplayer game not using the attack multiple players option (see rule 802), the reselected player or planeswalker must be the chosen defending player or a planeswalker controlled by that player.
        • 508.7e In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), the reselected player or planeswalker must be within the range of influence of the attacking creature’s controller.
      • 508.8. If no creatures are declared as attackers or put onto the battlefield attacking, skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.
    • 509. Declare Blockers Step
      • 509.1. First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 723, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
        • 509.1a The defending player chooses which creatures they control, if any, will block. The chosen creatures must be untapped. For each of the chosen creatures, the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking that player or a planeswalker they control.
        • 509.1b The defending player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t block, or that it can’t block unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of blockers is illegal.:::: A restriction may be created by an evasion ability (a static ability an attacking creature has that restricts what can block it). If an attacking creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared, it doesn’t affect that block. Different evasion abilities are cumulative.

          Example: An attacking creature with flying and shadow can’t be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow.

        • 509.1c The defending player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must block, or that it must block if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of blockers is illegal. If a creature can’t block unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if blocking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature blocks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature blocks if able during each declare blockers step in that turn.

          Example: A player controls one creature that “blocks if able” and another creature with no abilities. If a creature with menace attacks that player, the player must block with both creatures. Having only the first creature block violates the restriction created by menace (the attacking creature can’t be blocked except by two or more creatures). Having only the second creature block violates both the menace restriction and the first creature’s blocking requirement. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement.

        • 509.1d If any of the chosen creatures require paying costs to block, the defending player determines the total cost to block. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes “locked in.” If effects would change the total cost after this time, ignore this change.
        • 509.1e If any of the costs require mana, the defending player then has a chance to activate mana abilities (see rule 605, “Mana Abilities”).
        • 509.1f Once the player has enough mana in their mana pool, they pay all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
        • 509.1g Each chosen creature still controlled by the defending player becomes a blocking creature. Each one is blocking the attacking creatures chosen for it. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.
        • 509.1h An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no creatures declared as blockers for it becomes an unblocked creature. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat, an effect says that it becomes blocked or unblocked, or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. A creature remains blocked even if all the creatures blocking it are removed from combat.
        • 509.1i Any abilities that trigger on blockers being declared trigger. See rule 509.4 for more information.
      • 509.2. Second, for each attacking creature that’s become blocked, the active player announces that creature’s damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures blocking it in an order of that player’s choice. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can’t assign combat damage to a creature that’s blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.

        Example: Vastwood Gorger is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. Vastwood Gorger’s controller announces the Vastwood Gorger’s damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Llanowar Elves, then Runeclaw Bear.

        • 509.2a During the declare blockers step, if a blocking creature is removed from combat or a spell or ability causes it to stop blocking an attacking creature, the blocking creature is removed from all relevant damage assignment orders. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged.
      • 509.3. Third, for each blocking creature, the defending player announces that creature’s damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures it’s blocking in an order of that player’s choice. (During the combat damage step, a blocking creature can’t assign combat damage to a creature it’s blocking unless each creature ahead of that blocked creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
        • 509.3a During the declare blockers step, if an attacking creature is removed from combat or a spell or ability causes it to stop being blocked by a blocking creature, the attacking creature is removed from all relevant damage assignment orders. The relative order among the remaining attacking creatures is unchanged.
      • 509.4. Fourth, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 509.4a Any abilities that triggered on blockers being declared or that triggered during the process described in rules 509.1–3 are put onto the stack before the active player gets priority; the order in which they triggered doesn’t matter. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)
      • 509.5. Triggered abilities that trigger on blockers being declared may have different trigger conditions.
        • 509.5a An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] blocks, . . .” generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it blocks multiple creatures. It triggers if the creature is declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes a blocker as the result of an effect, but only if it wasn’t a blocking creature at that time. (See rule 509.1g.) It won’t trigger if the creature is put onto the battlefield blocking.
        • 509.5b An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] blocks a creature, . . .” triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. It triggers if the creature is declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if an effect causes that creature to block an attacking creature, but only if it wasn’t already blocking that attacking creature at that time. It won’t trigger if the creature is put onto the battlefield blocking.
        • 509.5c An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] becomes blocked, . . .” generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it’s blocked by multiple creatures. It will trigger if that creature becomes blocked by at least one creature declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes blocked by an effect or by a creature that’s put onto the battlefield as a blocker, but only if the attacking creature was an unblocked creature at that time. (See rule 509.1h.)
        • 509.5d An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] becomes blocked by a creature, . . .” triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It triggers if a creature is declared as a blocker for the attacking creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, but only if it wasn’t already blocking that attacking creature at that time. In addition, it will trigger if a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking that creature. It won’t trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.
        • 509.5e If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures, the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when blockers are declared. Effects that add or remove blockers can also cause such abilities to trigger. This applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures as well.
        • 509.5f If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics blocks, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point blockers are declared, or at the point an effect causes it to block. If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics becomes blocked, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point it becomes a blocked creature. If an ability triggers when a creature becomes blocked by a creature with certain characteristics, it will trigger only if the latter creature has those characteristics at the point it becomes a blocking creature. None of those abilities will trigger if the relevant creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition later on.

          Example: A creature has the ability “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature, destroy that creature at end of combat.” If the creature becomes blocked by a black creature that is later turned white, the ability will not trigger.

        • 509.5g An ability that reads “Whenever [a creature] attacks and isn’t blocked, . . .” triggers if no creatures are declared as blockers for that creature. It will trigger even if the creature was never declared as an attacker (for example, if it entered the battlefield attacking). It won’t trigger if the attacking creature is blocked and then all its blockers are removed from combat.
      • 509.6. If a spell or ability causes a creature on the battlefield to block an attacking creature, the active player announces the blocking creature’s placement in the attacking creature’s damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. Then the defending player announces the attacking creature’s placement in the blocking creature’s damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining attacking creatures is unchanged. This is done as part of the blocking effect.
      • 509.7. If a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it’s blocking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it’s blocking), then the active player announces the new creature’s placement in the blocked creature’s damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. A creature put onto the battlefield this way is “blocking” but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, it never “blocked.”

        Example: Giant Spider is blocked by Canyon Minotaur. The defending player casts Flash Foliage, which creates a Saproling creature token blocking the Giant Spider. Giant Spider’s controller announces the Giant Spider’s damage assignment order as the Saproling token, then Canyon Minotaur.

        • 509.7a If the effect that puts a creature onto the battlefield blocking specifies it’s blocking a certain creature and that creature is no longer attacking, the creature is put onto the battlefield but is never considered a blocking creature. The same is true if the controller of the creature that’s put onto the battlefield blocking isn’t a defending player for the specified attacking creature.
        • 509.7b A creature that’s put onto the battlefield blocking isn’t affected by requirements or restrictions that apply to the declaration of blockers.
    • 510. Combat Damage Step
      • 510.1. First, the active player announces how each attacking creature assigns its combat damage, then the defending player announces how each blocking creature assigns its combat damage. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. A player assigns a creature’s combat damage according to the following rules:
        • 510.1a Each attacking creature and each blocking creature assigns combat damage equal to its power. Creatures that would assign 0 or less damage this way don’t assign combat damage at all.
        • 510.1b An unblocked creature assigns its combat damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. If it isn’t currently attacking anything (if, for example, it was attacking a planeswalker that has left the battlefield), it assigns no combat damage.
        • 510.1c A blocked creature assigns its combat damage to the creatures blocking it. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If exactly one creature is blocking it, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If two or more creatures are blocking it, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocked creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can’t assign combat damage to a creature that’s blocking it unless, when combat damage assignments are complete, each creature that precedes that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that’s being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that’s actually dealt. An amount of damage that’s greater than a creature’s lethal damage may be assigned to it.

          Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). Vastwood Gorger can assign 3 damage to the Guardian and 2 damage to the Elves, 4 damage to the Guardian and 1 damage to the Elves, or 5 damage to the Guardian.

          Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Giant Growth targeting Pride Guardian, which gives it +3/+3 until end of turn. Vastwood Gorger must assign its 5 damage to the Guardian.

          Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Mending Hands targeting Pride Guardian, which prevents the next 4 damage that would be dealt to it. Vastwood Gorger can assign 3 damage to the Guardian and 2 damage to the Elves, 4 damage to the Guardian and 1 damage to the Elves, or 5 damage to the Guardian.

          Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Enormous Baloth (a 7/7 creature) is Trained Armodon (a 3/3 creature) that already has 2 damage marked on it, then Foriysian Brigade (a 2/4 creature that can block an additional creature), then Silverback Ape (a 5/5 creature). The damage assignment order of an attacking Durkwood Boars (a 4/4 creature) is the same Foriysian Brigade, then Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature). Among other possibilities, the active player may have the Baloth assign 1 damage to the Armodon, 1 damage to the Brigade, and 5 damage to the Ape, and have the Boars assign 3 damage to the Brigade and 1 damage to the Piker.

        • 510.1d A blocking creature assigns combat damage to the creatures it’s blocking. If it isn’t currently blocking any creatures (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If it’s blocking exactly one creature, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If it’s blocking two or more creatures, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocking creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can’t assign combat damage to a creature that it’s blocking unless, when combat damage assignments are complete, each creature that precedes that blocked creature is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that’s being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that’s actually dealt. An amount of damage that’s greater than a creature’s lethal damage may be assigned to it.
        • 510.1e Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature they control, the total damage assignment (not solely the damage assignment of any individual attacking or blocking creature) is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn’t, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 723, “Handling Illegal Actions.”)
      • 510.2. Second, all combat damage that’s been assigned is dealt simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. No player has the chance to cast spells or activate abilities between the time combat damage is assigned and the time it’s dealt.

        Example: Squadron Hawk (a 1/1 creature with flying) and Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature) are attacking. Mogg Fanatic (a 1/1 creature with the ability “Sacrifice Mogg Fanatic: Mogg Fanatic deals 1 damage to any target.”) blocks the Goblin Piker. The defending player sacrifices Mogg Fanatic during the declare blockers step to deal 1 damage to the Squadron Hawk. The Hawk is destroyed. The Piker deals and is dealt no combat damage this turn. If the defending player instead left Mogg Fanatic on the battlefield, the Fanatic and the Piker would have dealt lethal damage to one another, but the Squadron Hawk couldn’t have been dealt damage.

      • 510.3. Third, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 510.3a Any abilities that triggered on damage being dealt or while state-based actions are performed afterward are put onto the stack before the active player gets priority; the order in which they triggered doesn’t matter. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)
      • 510.4. If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.
    • 511. End of Combat Step
      • 511.1. The end of combat step has no turn-based actions. Once it begins, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
      • 511.2. Abilities that trigger “at end of combat” trigger as the end of combat step begins. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire at the end of the combat phase.
      • 511.3. As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins (see rule 505).
    • 512. Ending Phase
      • 512.1. The ending phase consists of two steps: end and cleanup.
    • 513. End Step
      • 513.1. The end step has no turn-based actions. Once it begins, the active player gets priority. (See rule 117, “Timing and Priority.”)
        • 513.1a Previously, abilities that triggered at the beginning of the end step were printed with the trigger condition “at end of turn.” Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say “at the beginning of the end step” or “at the beginning of the next end step.”
      • 513.2. If a permanent with an ability that triggers “at the beginning of the end step” enters the battlefield during this step, that ability won’t trigger until the next turn’s end step. Likewise, if a delayed triggered ability that triggers “at the beginning of the next end step” is created during this step, that ability won’t trigger until the next turn’s end step. In other words, the step doesn’t “back up” so those abilities can go on the stack. This rule applies only to triggered abilities; it doesn’t apply to continuous effects whose durations say “until end of turn” or “this turn.” (See rule 514, “Cleanup Step.”)
    • 514. Cleanup Step
      • 514.1. First, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than their maximum hand size (normally seven), they discard enough cards to reduce their hand size to that number. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 514.2. Second, the following actions happen simultaneously: all damage marked on permanents (including phased-out permanents) is removed and all “until end of turn” and “this turn” effects end. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
      • 514.3. Normally, no player receives priority during the cleanup step, so no spells can be cast and no abilities can be activated. However, this rule is subject to the following exception:
        • 514.3a At this point, the game checks to see if any state-based actions would be performed and/or any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack (including those that trigger “at the beginning of the next cleanup step”). If so, those state-based actions are performed, then those triggered abilities are put on the stack, then the active player gets priority. Players may cast spells and activate abilities. Once the stack is empty and all players pass in succession, another cleanup step begins.
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